Production process

Process I: internal mixing process
The internal mixing process is a procedure of mixing carbon black, natural/synthesized rubber, oil, additives, accelerants and other raw materials together and processing them in an internal mixer to produce “rubber materials”. All the raw materials must be tested before being put into the internal mixer, and then can be used after passing the test. The materials needed in the internal mixer each time should be about 250kg. All the rubber materials used by each rubber components in tires have specific performance. The ingredients of the rubber materials depend on the usability requirements of tires. Meanwhile, the ingredient variation of the rubber materials also depends on the requirements of matched manufacturers and the market, which mainly come from the requirements of traction, driveability, road surface conditions and tires. All the rubber materials must be tested before entering the next process – rubber component preparation process, and then can enter the next process after passing the test.

Process II: rubber component preparation process
The rubber component preparation process includes six main sections. In this process, all the semi-finished rubber components forming tires will be prepared, some of which are assembled preliminarily. The six sections are as follows:

Section I: extrusion
The rubber materials are fed into the extrusion head, thus extruding different semi-finished rubber components, namely treads, sidewalls/seam allowances and triangular rubber strips.
Section II: calendering
The cord thread raw materials pass through the calender, and both sides of each cord thread are coated with a thinner layer of rubber materials, to form the finished product known as “cord fabric”. The cord thread raw materials are mainly divided into nylon and polyester.
Section III: tire bead molding
Tire beads are formed by winding many rubber-coated steel wires. These rubber materials for tire beads have special performance; when vulcanized, the rubber materials can be tightly attached to the steel wires.
Section IV: cord fabric cutting
In this process, the cord fabrics will be cut into applicable width and connected with joints well. The width and angle variation of cord fabrics mainly depends on the specifications of tires and the requirements of tires on structural design.
Section V: triangular rubber strip attaching
In this process, the triangular rubber strips extruded from the extruder will be attached to the tire beads manually, which play an important role in the operating performance of tires.
Section VI: belted layer molding
Belted layers are produced in this process. In the spindle room, many steel wires pass through the threading plate, and then penetrate through the mouthpiece plate together with the rubber materials, to coat rubber on the two sides of the steel wires. The rubber-coated belted layers are cut into the stipulated angle and width which depend on the specifications of tires on specifications and structural design.
All the rubber components will be conveyed to the “tire molding” process for later use.
Process III: tire molding process
The tire molding process refers to assembling all the semi-finished products into green tires (unvulcanized tires) on the molding machine. The green tires are conveyed to the vulcanization process after inspection.
Process IV: vulcanization process
The green tires are assembled on the vulcanization machine and are kept in the molds under appropriate conditions for an appropriate period of time, thus being vulcanized into finished tires. The vulcanized tires have the appearance – patterns/fonts and tire bead patterns of finished tires. Now, the tires will be conveyed to the final inspection area.
Process V: final inspection process
In this area, the tires are firstly subjected to visual mechanical inspection, and then uniformity inspection which is finished by a “uniformity experiment machine”. The uniformity experiment machine is mainly used for measuring radial force, lateral force, cone force and fluctuation conditions. After uniformity inspection, the tires will be subjected to the dynamic balancing test which is finished on a “dynamic balance experiment machine”. Finally, the tires will be inspected by X-rays, and then conveyed to the finished product warehouse for later delivery.
Process VI: tire test
In the process of designing new tire specifications, a large quantity of tire tests are necessary, thus ensuring that the tire performance can meet the requirements of governments and supporting factories.
When the tires are formally put into production, we will still monitor the tire quality by continuously doing tire tests which are the same as those passed by new tires. The tires are tested by a “mileage experiment” machine; common experiments include high-speed experiments and endurance experiments.
Grounded rolling circular elastic rubber products are assembled on various vehicles or machines.
Generally, the products can bear vehicle bodies, buffer external impacts, contact with road surfaces and ensure the drivability of vehicles when mounted on metal rims. The tires are commonly used under complicated and severe conditions, and can bear various effects of deformation, load, force and high & low temperature, so they must features higher bearing performance, traction performance and cushion performance; meanwhile, they must have high wear resistance and flexing resistance, as well as low rolling resistance and heat generation performance. One half of the consumed rubber in the world is used for producing tires.

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